Sonata form is one of the most commonly used forms in classical music and might sound difficult and academic but you probably know more about it than you thought if you have performed a piece of music by either Haydn Mozart or Beethoven, then you probably encounter to work in Sonata form most first movements of Symphonies and concertos as well as chamber and solo instrumental works by these composers are organized into Sonata form.
If you watch a lot of sitcoms like Brooklyn Nine-Nine 30 Rock or the office, you might start to perceive a formula. They often start with a short funny intro which might or might not be related to the main plot in the main are the episode might have one or more storyline each with some of the characters in it. All of the stores have conflict all of which are resolved by the end of the episode at the very end and other short funny incidents close the episode doesn’t follow his formula.
You might feel like something is not quite right, even if you are consciously aware of the formula like sitcom Sonata form has an underlying formula through this shared knowledge the composers and listeners can communicate with each other and sometimes have private little jokes think of the Sonata form as two cookies basically in the first half of the two cookies are the main characters. They are different shapes and colors in the second half of the song the two cookies get all mixed up and by the end of the second half of the two Oreos are back to their original shape.
Except that the second Oreo is now the color of the first what you see in this diagram is that the Sonata form contains two harmonically enclosed have the exposition is the first half and the development and recapitulation are the second half in terms of thematic development. The form is divided into three main sections Exposition development and recapitulation.
So Sonata for mixes binary and ternary form two of the most common musical forms. The main section is called the exposition it often has two themes. The primary theme is a tonic meaning the key of the peace II theme is often dominant. Meaning the Fifth Scale degree is a piece in C major. The primary theme is in C major and the second theme is in G major.
In a minor piece, the second team is usually in relative major or the third scale degree. For example, if the pieces in c minor the primary theme would be in c minor and the second theme would be an E flat major. The development is the most unstable section anything can happen here harmonically and usually begins in the new key only to quickly depart on an exploration of the other key areas before returning to the dominaria. Again, the Fifth Scale degree, which creates a strong expectation for the primary theme in the opening key, thematically composers might use a variety of tricks to reuse material. They may only use a fragment of a motif. They may restate a theme in different keys, or they may dress up a familiar theme in various forms.
The recapitulation section is the homecoming section after all the adventures the characters return home with slightly different outlooks in this section the first and second theme are both in the tunnel to close the entire Sonata form in the exact same time and keep in which it began called a double return recapitulation. In other words in a C major piece II theme is in G major in the exposition and in C major in the recapitulation the important difference signals that everything is now stable.
Occasionally a development section that features a false recapitulation one that sounds like a melodic restatement of the opening theme, but the key is not actually the same as the beginning Exposition. In other words. We are not yet back to a place of stability until the recapitulation returns to the original tonic in short a large-scale harmonic tension resolution schema begins with harmonic instability in the transition section of the exposition, which is Amplified and put on display in the development and finally resolved during the secondary themes perfect authentic Cadence in the recapitulation.
First movement of Haydn keyboard Sonata in G major contains all three major section of the Sonata form and provides an excellent major mode example of the Sonata.
Next time when you go to a concert that includes the movement or a piece in Sonata form try and hear the themes the different sections and here with the composer is trying to communicate. I hope this helps you understand Sonata form check back in for more videos from Liberty Park music and hit that subscribe button. Give us a like and share this video with your friend if you found it interesting.